Things don’t always go as planned in a classroom. It happens when students miss some key piece of understanding and end up falling farther and farther behind. The atmosphere in the classroom can become tense: the instructor tries to keep things on track, but the students who are behind feel bad that they aren’t up to speed and the students who are ahead end up resenting them because the instructors need to slow down.
So how can students get back to a happy medium?
I admit, I like to play games with the way people think. I experiment with different ways of explaining, and different ways of getting people to behave differently. I rely a great deal on my understanding (and remembering) emotional cycles when I was a student.
Procrastination, Shame and Blame
The beginning can be something innocent. A late night, a bad lecture, or missing class for some reason.
Whatever the reason, the student finds themselves with a gap: their work isn’t done and their understanding isn’t up to the task either. To fill the gap, it will take an extraordinary effort, and being a little behind doesn’t seem that bad.
The gap in skills starts to affect other work. The other students seem to get the material, but it doesn’t click for the student. They feel bad, but it is hard to pinpoint where they lost control or how to get it back. The instructor is ahead and new material doesn’t make sense. People who try to help may come off as condescending, or frustrated with their slow progress. The person blames themselves for the problem, or starts to feel like they aren’t “smart enough.”
As frustration mounts, the person tries to make sense out of the situation. They rationalize that they must not be smart enough to get the concept, or that the instructor isn’t very good. They start to feel powerless. They will blame others for their failures, at the same time that they justify their own insecurities.
When someone feels resentful, hurt, ashamed, or angry, it is easy to put off work in lieu of other distractions. Which reinforces the skill gaps, which reinforces the negative self-image/sense of inadequacy, which ultimately leads to a sense of futility.
To be clear: it sucks to watch, it sucks to go through, and its hard to clean up after. But it is a cycle that can be broken.
Breaking the Cycle
The good news is that people can be brought out of a spiral like this, but there is no easy fix. The hardest thing to combat is the sense of powerlessness that can accompany falling behind. As students, it is imperative to recognize that it will take sustained effort. As instructors, we need to recognize that students don’t always have this self-knowledge.
So here is what I find works as a teacher: (1) Prioritize skills, and cut losses. Enforce deadlines rather than pile on more work. This basically comes down to identifying the key things that a student needs to work on rather than the complete past assignments. Nobody likes to lose grades, but the boundaries helps students break out of looking backward and into looking forward. (2) Praise and patience. Acknowledging even the smallest of steps as progress is helpful, and helps relieve the sense of shame. It also helps to acknowledge that struggle is part of the process, but making mistakes is not failure. (3) Set out a plan with incremental steps. The hardest part of breaking out of a procrastination cycle is the sense of being overwhelmed, so having simple (minimal) work is a good way of getting going. Having a few things to do means that once one thing is done, then the next tier or goal can be reached. Then the next goal will seem easier to reach.
Finally, momentum can carry the day.
…. and the horse you rode in on!
The funny thing about this is that this applies equally to teachers as it does to students. Teachers get frustrated and will feel like they have lost touch with their class just as much as students may feel lost in the class. It is easy for teachers to blame lazy students for not doing their work, but there is shared responsibility: students need to be encouraged if they are going to get engaged. It is okay to have a bad day teaching from time to time, and sometimes you won’t be able to give it everything you want. Focus on the successes, and it will be easier to be patient.
So: keep up the good work.
Never give up.
I’ll have to put off procrastinating for another day.